People generally don't find things until they start looking for them.
True enough. But if they are
already looking for them, and they are finding them in greater numbers than before, that does mean they are increasing
, right Sam? http://dwb4.unl.edu/chem/chem869k/chem8 ... tibio.html
Antibiotic resistance spreads fast. Between 1979 and 1987, for example, only 0.02 percent of pneumococcus strains infecting a large number of patients surveyed by the national Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were penicillin-resistant. CDC's survey included 13 hospitals in 12 states. Today, 6.6 percent of pneumococcus strains are resistant, according to a report in the June 15, 1994, Journal of the American Medical Association by Robert F. Breiman, M.D., and colleagues at CDC. The agency also reports that in 1992, 13,300 hospital patients died of bacterial infections that were resistant to antibiotic treatment.
That seems to suggest to me that
a) resistant strains existed in 1979 (and we were looking for them)
b) resistant strains existed in 1994 (and we were still looking for them)
c) since the number they were finding was 0.02% in 1979-87, and 6.6% in 1994
d) something must have happened between 1987 and 1994 that led to the increase
e) do you have a better theory than the increased overuse of antibiotics?
Another point to bring up is it seems there's a mixing of barnyards with hospitals.
Yes, of course, the two environments do not interact. http://www.keepantibioticsworking.com/l ... -sheet.pdf
Resistant bacteria can be transferred from animals to humans in three ways:
Via food: Meat in grocery stores is widely contaminated with antibiotic- resistant bacteria. A study in the Washington, DC, area found 20 percent of the sampled meat was contaminated with Salmonella and 84 percent of those bacteria were resistant to antibiotics used in human medicine and animal agriculture.15
Via working with animals:
Workers in the livestock industry may pick up resistant bacteria by handling animals, feed, and manure. They can then transfer the bacteria to family and community members.16
Via the environment: Groundwater, surface water, and soil are contami- nated from the nearly two trillion pounds of manure generated in the United States each year.17 This manure contains resistant bacteria, creating an immense pool of resist- ance genes available for transfer to bacteria that cause human disease.
And, of course, once resistant bacteria transfer from animals to humans, humans never go into hospitals, now do they?
Clearly, no link between barnyards and hospitals! QED!
You didn't give any information about how many they had die, it's obvious that they didn't all die. Even I with my poor skills didn't have them all die, three out of sixty in that one instance survived.
Looks like the entire Danish pig industry is doing well without antibiotics, that's why I moved on to them.
I have something else to bring up. Now that they've found that antibiotic producing Streptomyces occurs in the soil in the natural environment.
Well, I'm not a doctor (of medicine) any more than a farmer, but I think some of the antibiotics are purely synthetic (i.e. unlike tetracycline or penicillin, not derived from an organic source.)
If they have to be made in a laboratory, that means they are not found in nature, and therefore bacteria resistant to them could not have existed until we actually made them in the 20th century ... no? http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antibiotic ... er_animals
Role of other animals
Drugs are used in animals that are used as human food, such as cattle, pigs, chickens, fish, etc., and these drugs can affect the safety of the meat, milk, and eggs produced from those animals and can be the source of superbugs. For example, farm animals, particularly pigs, are believed to be able to infect people with MRSA. The resistant bacteria in animals due to antibiotic exposure can be transmitted to humans via three pathways, those being through the consumption of meat, from close or direct contact with animals, or through the environment.
The World Health Organization concluded antibiotics as growth promoters in animal feeds should be prohibited in the absence of risk assessments. In 1998, European Union health ministers voted to ban four antibiotics widely used to promote animal growth (despite their scientific panel's recommendations). Regulation banning the use of antibiotics in European feed, with the exception of two antibiotics in poultry feeds, became effective in 2006. In Scandinavia, there is evidence that the ban has led to a lower prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in (nonhazardous) animal bacterial populations
. In the USA, federal agencies do not collect data on antibiotic use in animals, but animal-to-human spread of drug-resistant organisms has been demonstrated in research studies. Antibiotics are still used in U.S. animal feed, along with other ingredients which have safety concerns.
Growing U.S. consumer concern about using antibiotics in animal feed has led to a niche market of "antibiotic-free" animal products, but this small market is unlikely to change entrenched, industry-wide practices.
In 2001, the Union of Concerned Scientists estimated that greater than 70% of the antibiotics used in the US are given to food animals (for example, chickens, pigs and cattle) in the absence of disease. In 2000, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced their intention to revoke approval of fluoroquinolone use in poultry production because of substantial evidence linking it to the emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter infections in humans.
The final decision to ban fluoroquinolones from use in poultry production was not made until five years later because of challenges from the food animal and pharmaceutical industries. During 2007, two federal bills (S. 549 and H.R. 962) aim at phasing out "nontherapeutic" antibiotics in US food animal production.
Since fluoroquinolone has only existed since 1962, made in scientific laboratories, I doubt it is in the soil. Nor that drug-resistant bacteria resistant to it existed before 1962. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluoroquinolone
You know, Sam, they say us Jews love to argue (especially with each other!). I wonder where people get that idea.